The problem

Hospitals and other medical institutions provide very specific health care services and therefore also use very specific chemical products. Some of them might be very “aggressive” and difficult to treat with conventional waste water treatment methods. In general two major potentially problematic areas can be determined.


  • Cleaning and disinfecting agents – specific surface cleaners and equipment disinfectants
  • Pharmaceuticals – normally unused pills are collected for disposal, however, metabolites of various pharmaceuticals are excreted directly from human body. Some of them (e.g. diclofenac, β-estradiol) are very difficult to treat from waste waters and can pose serious health problems to aquatic organisms.
Photo credits: Pexels

Photo credits: Pexels

More information coming soon!